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N1 Outdoors is an outdoors company and outdoor apparel brand providing hunting and fishing tips via our blog and instructional videos. N1 shares bow hunting, fishing and other helpful information for those who hunt and fish and enjoy the outdoors. "Hunting, Fishing, The Outdoors... All N1"

The Anatomy Of A Fish

It’s hard to beat the feeling (and the smiles that follow) when you put a hook N1. After all, who doesn’t love catching fish? But, when it comes to fish anatomy, they are as equally fascinating as they are to catch.

There are thousands of fish species all over the world. Fish are cold-blooded animals, which means that in most cases, their body temperature can change to mirror the temperature of the water they live in.  

A Fish’s anatomy can be divided into external and internal. Let’s start by examining the external anatomy of a fish.

External Fish Anatomy

The external anatomy of a fish includes the fins, scales, gills, eyes, nares, mouth, lateral lines and vents. Let’s take a look at each.

external fish anatomy diagram
External fish anatomy (smallmouth bass)

Fins

The fins of a fish are appendages used to move, steer, stop or position. The fins also give the fish balance in the water. The fins could be single fins (such as the anal fin, the back or dorsal fin, and the caudal or tail fin) or paired fins (they include pelvic or hip fins and pectoral or chest fins) along the centerline of the fish.

Certain fish, such as the catfish, have an adipose fin which is behind the dorsal fin. The purpose of the anal fin and dorsal fin is to help the fish conveniently roll over to their sides.

The caudal fin, on the other hand, allows for propulsion as the fish moves forward. Lastly, the paired fins allow the fish to steer, stop, and hover around.

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A lot of freshwater fish have spines that support their fins. These rigid spines can be very sharp, thus playing a defensive role in protecting the fish from danger. The catfish, for example, has sharp fins in the dorsal and pectoral area and anglers should be aware and careful when handling these fish.

In some species, the number of spines in the dorsal fin actually helps differentiate between two species, as is the case with white crappie and black crappie

Dorsal fins and caudal fins, on the other hand, have rays which are frequently branched and are less rigid.

Scales

Most bony fish have scales that are either cycloid or ctenoid, except for a few such as the catfish, which doesn’t have a scale, or the gar which possesses ganoid scales.

Cycloid scales have edges which are smooth and rounded while ctenoid scales have edges which are jagged.

To prevent infection, most of the fish have a mucus layer which covers the body. It is important that anglers who intend to return a fish to the water, be very careful with the way they handle the fish, so they don’t mistakenly rub off this mucus layer from the fish. Wetting your hands before handling the fish can help reduce the likelihood of damage to the mucous layer.

Lateral Line

The lateral line in the fish is a group of organs that helps the fish sense the pressure of currents and movement in the water. It consists of a “line” of sacs filled with fluids. These sacs have sensory apparatus which open to the water by means of pores which creates a line along the side of the fish. The lateral line helps the fish sense other fish as well as prey.

fish lateral line
The lateral lines of a fish serve to help them sense other fish… predators as well as prey.

The lateral line of a fish

Gills

Fish gills are very delicate and sensitive structures that allow fishes to breathe while they are underwater. The fish gills have a bright, red color because they are highly vascularized. The gills are protected by a gill cover (operculum) which is a flexible, bony plate. To breathe, the fish takes in water through the mouth, which passes through the gills and is removed from beneath the operculum. 

Eyes

Fish have well-developed eyes to detect varying colors. While mammals achieve focus by the changing shape of the eye lens, fish achieve focus in the water by the in-and-out movement of the lens.

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Nares

The nares are a pair of nostrils which the fish uses to detect odors in the water. These nares are very sensitive. Fish like catfish and eels have a sense of smell that is well developed. Fish that live in water that is dark or murky, tend to rely on smell more heavily than fish in clearer aquatic habitat. Fish can also use their sense of smell to detect chemicals in the water, which may indicate predators or even help a fish to locate a mate.

Mouth

The shape of a fish’s mouth can dictate the kind of food the fish eats. For example a fish with a larger mouth will tend to have larger prey.

Fish have a good sense of taste, and in some cases, they can taste their prey even before they swallow it. Some fish are omnivores, like many freshwater fish in Florida. Other fish are mainly piscivorous, which means they feed mainly on other fish.

There are also some fish, such as grass carp, that are herbivores, eating plant life. Depending on the species of fish, some may have teeth while others don’t. Some fish, such as the gar or chain pickerel, have canine-shaped teeth. Others, however, like the catfish have cardiform teeth, which feel like a rough area in the mouth.

Some have vomerine teeth, which are like tiny patches of teeth in the roof of the fish’s mouth. Others, such as the grass carp have pharyngeal teeth which are located in the throat.

The anatomy of a fish’s mouth can affect what type of hook to tie in fishing for particular species of fish.

Vent

In most fishes, the vent is in front of the anal fin. The vents are external openings which open to the reproductive and digestive tracts of the fish.

Internal Fish Anatomy

Internal fish anatomy consists of the spine, spinal cord, brain, swim bladder, kidney, stomach and intestines, vent, liver, heart, gonads, muscles and pyloric caeca. Let’s take a look at each below.

Spine

fish skeleton
The fish skeleton is the framework for the entire fish.

The spine serves as the primary structural framework of the fish. The fish anatomy as a whole is built upon the spine. The spine also connects to the tail of the fish at the rear and the skull of the fish at the front. Numerous hollow vertebra helps to house and protect the spine of the fish.

The skeleton of the fish can be made of either bones or cartilages.

Spinal Cord

The spinal cord of the fish is connected to the brain of the fish as well as to the rest of the fish’s body. It carries sensory information from the body to the brain and also relays instructions from the brain to the rest of the body.

Brain

It is in the brain that sensory information is processed. This is the center of control in a fish. In the brain, automatic functions such as respiration as well as other behaviors are controlled.

Swim Or Air Bladder

The swim bladder is a hollow organ which the fish uses to conserve energy. The swim bladder functions much like a human lung. The fish draws oxygen into the bladder that has been drawn from the water by way of the fish’s gills. The more oxygen the sac holds, the more buoyant the fish becomes.

Conversely, when the bladder releases oxygen, the fish becomes less buoyant, which allows it to sink to deeper water.

The fish can use the swim bladder to to suspend itself in the water, thus saving energy.

Because of atmospheric pressure difference between the water surface and deep water, fish which were caught from deep waters will need to have some air released from their body before they can return to the deep water.

Some species of fishes, however, do not have swim bladders and because of this, they can sink if they stop swimming.

Kidney

The kidney is a part of the fish anatomy that aids a fish in discharging waste from the body. Waste materials in the blood are filtered by the kidney and then removed from the body. The kidneys also help to regulate the concentration of water and salt in the body of the fish. 

Stomach And Intestines

The stomach and intestines of a fish play an important part in the fish’s survival. They help to break down ingested food and to absorb the nutrients. Some fish have short intestines because the food they take is easy to digest. Other fish, such as the herbivores, have longer intestines that help them break down the food they eat.

Pyloric Caeca

The pylori caecum is situated at the junction of the intestine and stomach. It has finger-like projections. Although the function of this organ is not completely understood, the organ has been known to secrete enzymes that help in digestion.

Vent

The vent is the site where waste is excreted from the body of the fish. During spawning, the vent serves as an outlet for eggs and sperm.

Muscles

fish muscle filet photo
Teh fish muscles are the powerful force behind a fish’s ability to swim quickly… and also what make them a tasty meal.

The muscles of the fish help the fish to move in the water. The fillet of the fish, which is generally the part of the fish that is eaten, is comprised primarily of muscle. Anyone who has ever caught a fish and had it flip out of your hand has experienced how powerful a fish’s muscles can be.

Liver

The liver is another important organ with various functions. The liver supports digestion by means of secreted enzymes which break down fats. It also helps to store carbohydrates and fats in the body of the fish. Old blood cells are destroyed by the liver to maintain the blood chemistry of the fish and the liver also helps in the excretion of nitrogen or waste.

Heart

The heart of the fish helps in blood circulation. Through the blood, various cells and organs of the fish receive digested nutrients and oxygen. Waste products are also transported by the blood to organs such as the kidney and liver for removal. This function is made possible by the heart.

Gonads

The gonads are the reproductive organs of the fish. They produce sex cells in the fish. Female fish produce eggs by means of paired ovaries while male fish produce sperm by means of paired testes. The gonads of the fish are located in the same general location. The eggs of some fish are considered a delicacy in certain parts of the world.

Conclusion

Whether you eat the fish you catch or practice catch and release, we hope you have learned a lot from this article about fish anatomy. And, of course, we hope you put a hook N1! You can also view fishing tips videos and read our articles on all types of fishing topics.

And, if you love reading about anatomy of wild game, be sure to check out our article on deer anatomy

A Guide To Bow Hunting For Beginners

There’s nothing like the adrenaline rush of being in close to a deer or other wild game and releasing an arrow that finds its mark. But, what if you’ve never felt that rush? What should you know to begin the quest of being a successful bow hunter? In this article we will do our best to get you started in the right direction. Let’s just call this N1 Outdoors’ Bow Hunting For Beginners 101.

So, What Brings You To Bow Hunting?

Maybe you’ve always hunted with a rifle or other firearm. Maybe you’ve mastered gun hunting and simply want to try your hand at a new challenge. Or, maybe you’re totally new to any type of hunting and just want to learn what this bow hunting thing is all about.

Whatever your situation or age, we think you’ll find that bow hunting is not only fun (you’ll want to say “Bowhunt Oh Yeah!”), but helps teach patience, discipline, attention to detail and focus. And, there is certainly a special sense of accomplishment knowing you have been able to take an animal at close range and provide meat for your family and friends.

Hunting Education And Safety

If you haven’t taken your state’s hunter safety course, be sure to sign up and do that the first chance you get. This will help you learn safe hunting practices whether you are hunting with a bow or a gun. You will also learn the hunting laws and regulations of your state as well as learn how to identify game.

Study, Study

It’s possible that if you’re interested in learning to bow hunt, that you’ve already been watching videos or TV programs about bow hunting. But, if not, there is certainly no shortage of videos about bow hunting tips. And, while videos are great visuals to learn from, don’t discount the wealth of knowledge you can glean from bow hunting blogs and articles.

You may also find it interesting to learn about the history of archery as well. It may help you appreciate the skill you are about to begin learning.

Go Local

Your local bow shop is a great resource for anyone wanting to begin their bow hunting journey. You don’t have to look long on social media to know that there are more than a few companies pushing their archery equipment and supplies. Of course, they all look good and sometimes it’s difficult to know what exactly you need.

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Broadheads And Arrows And Bows, Oh My!

As a bow hunting beginner, you may be overwhelmed with the choices of bow hunting equipment that is currently on the market. Your local bow shop can help you find your way through the sea of bow hunting advertisements to equipment that’s right for you. For example, what is your draw length? What should the poundage be on your bow? And, of course, there are so many choices when it comes to broadheads, arrows, arrow rests, sights, releases, bow strings, fletches and targets. And, of course, these things can be affected by what species of game you will be pursuing.

The bottom line is that your local bow shop should provide you with a wealth of information when it comes to figuring out your equipment needs. And, of course, it’s always great to support local business, right?

Inspect Your Archery Equipment

Once you have decided on and purchased your bow hunting equipment and supplies, it’s time to do some target practice! But, before you sling an arrow, you need to inspect your equipment. Be sure you don’t have any cracks in your bow limbs, fraying of your bow string, or nicks or cuts in you bow cams. Also, be sure you have waxed your bow string recently.

Target Time

You may have a local range or archery shop to shoot at, but you may also choose to buy your own target for practice at home.

If you choose to shoot at home, always be sure you set up your target in a safe location where there is no chance of an arrow shooting toward any individual. This includes never shooting towards houses, streets, sidewalks or any other location where people may be standing or passing by.

It’s also a good idea to place a backstop of some kind behind your target. This will help to block an errant arrows that miss the target. Be sure your backstop is much larger than your target.

Practice, Practice and Practice!

Once you have set up a safe target location and inspected your equipment, you are ready to begin practicing! Be sure you don’t nock an arrow until you’re ready to shoot. When you nock your arrow, be sure to point it toward the ground while nocking.

In short, never point the arrow at anything you are not prepared to draw on and shoot. Also, if possible try to be shooting toward your target at a downward angle.

Once you have gotten familiar with the operation of your new bow hunting equipment by shooting at a target, you can start to prepare for various bow hunting scenarios.

While shooting at a stationary target is certainly something to master, deer and other game animals don’t always still and broadside, allowing you to take a perfect shot. So, you should practice shooting your bow from various positions, including inclines, declines and sitting positions.

You should also practice shooting in a way that mirrors the various angles that your game may be standing. For example, a shot on an animal that is quartering away from you will require you to shoot further back, so that the arrow passes through the vitals, so that you can take an ethical shot that results in as clean a kill as possible.

Don’t Forget Your Hunting License

You may already be a hunter that is learning to bow hunt. But, if this will be your first hunting trip, be sure before you get your hunting license before your first trip.

You can contact your state’s Department of Natural Resources to purchase a license. Some local outdoors shops also sell hunting and fishing licenses. You can also go online to purchase a license for the state you live in.

Time To Hunt

As you get ready to take your new bow hunting skills to the field or the woods, continue learning as much as you can from experienced bow hunters. Be teachable. Your learning curve will be much less steep if you listen well and put into practice what you’ve learned.

You may feel that learning the basics of shooting your bow will surely lead to instant success. We certainly wish you bow hunting success. However, there is much to learn when trying to take an animal with a bow at close range. For example, you must pay close attention to wind direction as well as learn when to use certain entry and exit routes to access your deer stand.

And remember, even after your hunts, be sure to continue educating yourself on hunting tips with relevant blogs and videos.

Hopefully this bow hunting for beginners article has provided you with the information you need to get started on this new adventure! We wish you success and hope you have an arrow that’s Just Pass’N Through!

How To Tie The Uni Knot

In this N1 Outdoors® video we show you how to tie the versatile uni knot (or hangmans knot). We hope you Put A Hook N1!

(Uni Knot video transcript)

Hey everyone. We know many of you enjoy learning how to tie different types of fishing knots. You may have watched some of our other videos on how to tie the palomar knot, or double palomar knot.

The Uni Knot [Hangmans Knot]

Today, we’re going to show you how to tie the uni knot, sometimes referred to as the hangman’s knot. And, it’s not a very difficult knot to tie, but we want to show you how to do that. And, it’s a great knot for just about every fishing scenario. So, it’s a good one to have in your skill set. So, we’re using just a lure today, because it’s a little bit easier to see and hold onto for the video and 12 lb. mono.

Uni Knot | Step-By-Step Instructions

uni knot put a hook n1 hydroglyhic shirt

So, we’re going to take the line, insert it through the eyelet. And, we’re going to pull about 6 inches or so on the tag end.

You’re going to take your two fingers right here. And, we’re going to just hold them right here above the eyelet.

We’re going to take the tag end and we’re going to make a loop. We’re going to loop it and then we’re going to hold that loop against the line in between those same two fingers. So, this is what it looks like.

We’re going to take the tag end and we’re going to go down behind and through the big loop and then back up and we’re going to keep twisting that around like that five different times. So, we’re going to take the tag end and begin to loop it. One, two, three, four and five. And, when you’re done, the tag end will be sticking up right here.

Now, you can just take that tag end while you’re still holding the line against the eyelet and begin to pull on that tag end. And, you’ll see that knot begin to cinch up in the middle of the line.

Now, you can let go of the tag end, grab the long end. Hold onto the lure and just pull. And, you’ll see that knot cinch down on the eyelet of the lure, or the hook in your case. We’re going to take our snips and snip there.

Now, you’ve got a really strong, very versatile uni knot. And, this knot is great, as I said, for many fishing scenarios. You can use it for line to leader combinations as well. There’s many different uses for that.

So, we hope you’ve enjoyed learning how to tie the uni knot, or hangman’s knot. And, we hope you Put A Hook N1.

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