how loud is a 22 rifle

A Boom Or A Whisper? | How Loud Is a .22 Rifle?

Shooting firearms recreationally can be an enjoyable hobby, but it can also come at a price to your hearing.

Firearm noises can be especially harmful as they have high and low frequencies that can damage your hearing, mainly when the frequencies are sustained at increased volumes.

Exposure to loud sounds over a long period may result in permanent hearing damage. This is why wearing ear protection is essential when shooting any gun type.

How Loud Is A .22 Rifle

But, let’s zero in and discuss one popular gun in particular… the .22 rifle.

The .22 rifle is often used for hunting small game and is common among recreational shooters. .22 caliber firearms produce noise levels ranging from 120 to 140 dB (decibels), meaning they’re louder than everyday conversations, which emit about 60 decibels of sound.

Is a .22 rifle louder than a shotgun?

.22 rifles aren’t as loud as shotguns. A shotgun can go up to 160 decibels, while a .22 rifle goes to around 130-140 decibels.

man shooting shotgun

A shotgun is louder than a .22 rifle, as the air blast it releases is greater when the gun is fired.

How loud is a 9mm vs. a .22?

A .22 caliber bullet is quieter than a 9mm, the most common firearm round.

While a .22 emits about 120 sound decibels, a 9mm produces up to 160 because a .22 has smaller rounds than a 9mm. As a result, the kinetic energy it possesses when fired isn’t as much, resulting in less noise.

9mm bullets

9mm rounds are louder than a .22 rifle, due to their size.

A .22 rifle is an excellent option for those looking for relatively quiet but powerful guns. It’s ideal for small game hunting and target shooting and won’t bother your neighbors as other bigger calibers might.

Although .22 rifles are quieter than other guns, it’s still vital to take measures to protect your ears when shooting one.

Using hearing protection can shield you from the high-pitched noise they produce as it may potentially damage your ears.

How far can you hear a .22?

How far you can hear a .22 varies depending on how sound travels and the environment.

Under perfect conditions, you can hear it from up to two miles away. Nevertheless, in an urban setting with many noise sources and buildings, the distance can be reduced to a few hundred yards.

A classic .22 caliber round emits sound that is comparable, in decibels, to a an ambulance siren or a rock concert.

A .17 HMR cartridge is a quieter option that produces around 100 decibels of noise.

How loud are .22 subsonic sounds?

The decibel scale measures sound intensity. And while a a .22 caliber round is considered a low-intensity round, the decibel level can vary based on the ammunition and gun types being used.

For instance, a suppressed .22 pistol could have around a 95 dB noise level, while the unsuppressed one could go up to 135 decibels.

.22 subsonic round

If you want a quieter round that won’t bother your neighbors, a .22 caliber subsonic round can be the way to go. These rounds move at speed lower than a standard round, significantly reducing noise levels.

How to Protect Your Hearing From Firearm Noise

While you may love hunting, enjoying it without hurting your hearing should be a main focus.

People who use firearms are at a greater risk of experiencing tinnitus, hearing loss, and other hearing problems.

Exposure to more than 85 decibels may result in noise-induced hearing loss. The loud sound can permanently destroy the hairs in your ears that stimulate the auditory nerve fibers.


Other factors contributing to harmful noise levels when using a firearm may include gun modification mechanisms like muzzle breaks or discharging the firearm where sounds can echo or reverberate.

Hearing loss also impacts how you hunt, and may be tied to cardiovascular disease, depression, cognitive decline, balance issues like falling, isolation, social withdrawal, and other challenges.

Good hearing promotes situational awareness, which is crucial in the field. Hearing protection ensures that attention is present when you need it the most.

Understanding hearing protection and hearing enhancement will help you better protect your ears. Outlined below are ways to protect your hearing from firearm noise.

Use earmuffs

Earmuffs are personal protective gear meant to protect you against excess noise pollution. They’re made of sponge and thermoplastics and have a pair of cups. The cups are usually attached to a steel or plastic headband’s outer ends to fit over your ears’ top while covering them tightly.

You can wear acoustic earmuffs alone or with earplugs, reducing dangerous noise that can potentially damage your hearing.

Try earplugs

Earplugs come in various types, and this is why you should consult a professional to identify a proper hearing protection solution. Some may include:

  • Custom earplugs: They contain special filters for an accurate, even noise reduction level. You can have custom earplugs programmed to lessen sounds by the necessary amount and filter specific sound types more than others. They’re made with molds of your ear by a skilled professional, ensuring they’re a perfect fit and seal your ear better than standard earplugs. They’re comfortable and ideal for wearing for longer hours  
  • Electronic shooter earplugs: Electronic earplugs can listen to the noises around you, offer automatic protection from impact noises like gunshots, or gradually turn up a reduced protection noise reduction rating in response to background sounds slowly increasing to hazardous levels. They offer you the protection you require from one moment to another without removing or fiddling with your earplugs. Electronic earplugs can let lower decibel sounds pass while blocking harmful noises.
  • Reusable shooter earplugs: They’re an effective way to reduce sound levels, protecting from high shooting decibels. When looking for reusable shooter earplugs, note that various reusable earplugs have different noise reduction ratings. The higher the ratings, the better the noise reduction level provided it’s a good fit for your ear. Reusable shooter earplugs are durable and can be used multiple times



While a .22 is not as loud as many other rifles, it can still be pretty loud, impacting your hearing. So, consider using hearing protection each time you use any gun, to prevent permanent hearing loss and other impairments.

Safe and happy shooting!

why is ammo so expensive

Skyrocketing Prices! [Why is Ammo So Expensive?]

Skyrocketing prices continue to influence our lives, from the food we eat to the gas we put in our cars.

The shooting sports have been hit hard as well.

Record-breaking gun sales and global supply chain breakdowns have contributed to escalating ammo prices. 

During and post-COVID-19 pandemic, ammo quadrupled over their pre-pandemic prices.

ammo bullets

Ammo scarcity and shortages has resulted in some retailers limiting how many boxes you can purchase at a time.

Prices for firearms have not gone above the manufacturer’s list price because they are durable goods that last for years and even a lifetime.

On the other hand, ammunition is intended to be used up. The scarcity of ammunition has resulted in some retailers rationing customer’s ammo to a few boxes at a time.

You might be wondering, “Why is ammo so expensive?” Read on and find out!

Raw Materials

Several factors contribute to the rising ammo prices, including warehousing, transport, and raw materials.

Copper is an essential ingredient that is highly sought after in the global markets.

copper pipe

Copper, which is essential to ammunition production, is also needed in other industries, increasing demand and limiting available supply.

Olin, which carries the Winchester brand, says they compete with hundreds of other companies demanding the metal. Wiring, electric vehicles, semiconductors are all part of the soaring appetite for copper.

In 2020, the average closing price of copper was $2.80 per pound. At the time of this article, it has more than doubled, reaching all-time highs!


Supply Chain

Head to any grocery store and scan the bare shelves, and you have experienced the fault in our supply chains.

The nationwide supply chain chokehold has impacted every industry. Goods and raw materials are simply not moving fast enough to alleviate the demand.


There is a shortage of 80,000 truck drivers in the United States alone, and port backlogs are getting worse.  Manufacturers have expanded production, but customers suffer if the goods can’t move.

Intensified firearm demands, and the increase in raw components also contribute to the short ammo supply. Some local stores around the country are reporting that ammo is selling out in minutes once it reaches the shelves.

hinterland ammo online

With ammo supply getting harder to find, many have turned to online sources.

Active shooters need to find productive channels for their rifle and handgun ammo needs. Several online sources, like Hinterland Outfitters, are emerging as great places to do business, while gun shops and sports retailers love to service regular customers.



The ammunition industry is highly cyclical and prone to shortages. However, gun sales spiked since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic.

According to a report from the National Shoots Sports Federation, nearly 5.4 million Americans purchased their first gun in 2021 alone In addition, 2020 was a record year for the firearm industry as a whole. 

pistol with bullets on table

With the pandemic of 2020, it was certainly a year that will not easily forgotten. It will not quickly be forgotten by the gun industry either, with nearly 5.4 million Americans purchasing their first guns.

The recent surge of gun buyers was seen as a reaction to the widespread unrest and rising crime that began in 2019.

Many saw the gun surge as an arrival of government change in Washington DC., with some conspiracy theorists claiming that the government engineered the ammo shortage, even though the shortage has crossed over two diametrically opposed administrations.


In some areas of the country long lines of ammo buyers are waiting in line at their sporting goods retailer for the weekly shipment of ammunition, which usually sells out in minutes. Any other day and the shelves are bare.

empty ammo shelves

Empty ammo shelves affect more than just hunters and recreational shooters. It seems that law enforcement agencies are affected as well.

From an outside view, there are boundless outlets to find ammunition. But, twists and turns of corporate greed and financial engineering forced Remington into bankruptcy, after handing over millions of dollars to a private equity firm.

Consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions have resulted in two names controlling the small arms ammunition market; Vista Outdoors and Olin Corp.


lots of bullets

While profits are being generated from ammunition-producing companies, they are not necessarily resulting in more ammo being made.

Olin and Vista Outdoors do not necessarily reinvest profits into more plants and personnel, which yields more ammunition. Annual reports state these companies are focused on providing “long-term shareholder value.” These companies are after top-line growth, not short-term demand.

Meanwhile, ammo shortages are not only affecting hunters and competitors, but the DOD, FBI, and others. Olin contracts with the FBI, Secret Service, and Border Protection. Olin reinvented government-owned ammunition facilities in Salt Lake City with the government owning and operating 84 ammunition facilities. They are now down to 14.  

What is the Answer To Higher Ammo Prices?

Popular calibers continue to spike, such as the 22 LR, 9mm, and 5.56. When do shooters say; enough is enough, and I am not buying any more ammo? Range owners are sadly looking at their patrons and saying that it’s a buck and a half every time you pull the trigger.


Buy in Bulk

Consider the savings; the cost of 1000 rounds of 9mm ammo will typically be about 10% less than buying in 50 round boxes.

Bite the bullet, as they say, buy bulk ammo in your favorite calibers, and store it for future use. Buying in bulk locks your cost in right now, so you save money if prices continue to rise. 

lots of bullets

Buying ammo in bulk can save you money now, and even more as prices rise.

Here are some advantages to buying rifle and handgun ammo in bulk.

  1. Negotiate; if you go through a lot of ammo, wholesalers will talk terms 
  2. Save on shipping; buying in bulk; you realize savings on items such as shipping charges
  3. Deals are everywhere; buying in bulk means wholesalers have a lot of lucrative deals to offer


A number of shooters believe the only way to go is reloading; in some situations, this may be true.

The first argument against reloading is the significant start-up costs and ongoing expenses. However, reloading saves money if you shoot ammo that is not cheap, like the 44 magnum or 40 S&W.

30-06 casing

While reloading can save money over purchasing new ammo, it can be expensive to get started.

Reloading expenses to consider

  1. Reloading press; a good press can go as high as $1500, with an average of around $500 to $700
  2. Crimpers and dies; some presses require additional equipment
  3. Recurring supplies; gunpowder, bullets, brass cases, primers, reloading dies

Never skimp on reloading supplies unless you prefer inferior ammunition. Once you start reloading, you head to the range more often, which means more brass, gunpowder, bullets, etc. In the long run, shooters who reload can save money with no increase in shooting. It takes a few months to recoup expenses once everything is in place.

Additional ways to save money on ammo

  1. Always look for online and in-store sales
  2. Gun Shows 
  3. Big-Box retailers
  4. Storage

Final Word On Why Ammo Is So Expensive

The days of strolling into your local sports retailer to pick up a box of your favorite ammo at a discount are over, and some say it will never come back.

Shooters must start thinking outside their comfort zone to find the best deals on ammo.

If you shoot one of the premium calibers, a long-term perspective needs to be implemented. Constantly scouring the ads and online stores may now be commonplace. Some calibers like the 9mm are always in stock because of so many firearms that use the cartridge.

Changing your firearm to a readily available cartridge may be the answer if you just love the sport of shooting.

Happy shooting!

home defense shotgun on house porch

When Protection is Paramount | Best Home Defense Shotguns

A shotgun is a popular choice for home defense, as the multiple pellets fired from the barrel spread out and provide tremendous stopping power.

After comparing some of the best home defense shotguns, I came up with a list of suggestions (more on that soon!)

Finding the best shotguns involved looking at various features, including the type, gauge, capacity, pull length, and price of different shotguns.

woman practicing shooting home defense shotgun

Hopefully, you never have a situation where you would need to defend yourself and your loved ones in your home, but if so, you want to have a shotgun that you can operate effectively.

While you have many shotguns to choose from, the Mossberg 590A1 is the best overall choice.

The Mossberg 590A1 is a pump-action tactical shotgun with a capacity of six rounds plus one in the chamber. It stands out as the only shotgun to pass the Mil-Spec 3443E test, making it the most reliable option. 3,000 buckshot rounds were fired through the weapon without any part breakages.

Yet, the Mossberg 590A1 may not be the best fit for everyone. Some people may prefer a shotgun without a pistol grip or a semi-automatic shotgun instead of a pump-action one. 

You may also prefer the best budget shotgun. Each option has distinct advantages that may better match your needs. 

Best Shotguns For Home Defense (List)

Keep reading to explore the top picks for best home defense shotguns and learn more about the features to look for when comparing choices.

1. Best Overall – Mossberg 590A1 

mossberg 5901A1 tactical pump shotgun

The Mossberg 590A1 is pump-action, has a removeable stock, and can accept various types of scopes/optics.

The Mossberg 590A1 offers several advantages that should appeal to anyone looking for a shotgun for home defense.

First, it’s a pump-action shotgun, which is recommended for first-time shotgun buyers. Pump-action shotguns are traditionally more reliable compared to semi-automatic shotguns, as they contain fewer moving parts.

The 590A1 is also the only shotgun to pass the military’s reliability test. If you keep the shotgun well-maintained, you should never need to worry about it jamming. On the odd chance that the gun malfunctions, you can cycle to the next round and fire as normal. 

The Mossberg 590A1 is a 12-gauge shotgun with a 6+1 capacity. It has a barrel length of 18.5 inches and a length of pull (LOP) of 13.9-inches. It comes equipped with a pistol grip and a stock for increased maneuverability and less recoil.


As with most of the top shotguns, the Mossberg 590A1 comes with standard iron sights but supports a wide range of aftermarket sights and accessories. You can add optics or scopes that use Picatinny rails.

The 590A1 is also a popular choice with the military and law enforcement agencies around the country. It is a durable, heavy-duty shotgun and is available at a reasonable price. (The following Mossberg 590A1 video review from Hickok45 offers a detailed look at the shotgun’s parts and performance.)


  • The pump-action design is highly reliable
  • Supports a wide range of optics and scopes
  • Includes a comfortable pistol grip and removable stock


  • The safety is on top of the receiver, which some people may find awkward

2. Best Semi-Automatic Shotgun – Benelli M2

benelli M2 Field Semi-Auto Shotgun

The M2 from Benelli is a semi-automatic with good accuracy, due to the 26-inch barrel.

The Benelli M2 is a semi-automatic shotgun. While most semi-auto shotguns use a gas-powered system, the M2 uses an inertia-driven system for smooth, reliable action.

It includes just three parts, resulting in increased reliability compared to other semi-autos.

As with most of the recommendations, the Benelli M2 is a 12-gauge shotgun. It also features a barrel length of 26 inches. The long barrel helps deliver increased accuracy.

You can also choose from a pistol grip with a stock or a standard stock. Other options include a ghost ring or standard open rifle sights.


The ghost ring has a small, circular aperture that lines up with the post on the front of the shotgun. If you are not an experienced marksman, you may find that the ghost ring allows you to quickly line up your shot.

The Outdoor Limits YouTube channel provides an in-depth look at the Benelli M2 in a video review of the shotgun. Overall, this is one of the most reliable semi-automatic shotguns on the market. However, it also comes with a high price tag that may put off some buyers.


  • Faster firing speed compared to pump-action shotguns
  • One of the most reliable semi-automatic shotguns
  • Available with a pistol grip or a standard stock


  • One of the most expensive options 

3. Best Compact Shotgun – Kel-Tec KSG Shotgun

Kel-Tec KSG Pump Shotgun

The Kel-Tec KSG has a pump behind the trigger, giving it a unique look and compact size.

The Kel-Tec KSG does not resemble the earlier recommendations due to its compact design. It has an 18.5-inch barrel, which is the same length used in most other shotguns. However, the overall length is just over 26 inches.

The KSG is also a bullpup shotgun. Instead of a manual pump in front of the trigger, the pump is behind the trigger, which allows for a more compact size. 

The Kel-Tec KSG also offers a larger capacity compared to other options. The total capacity is 14+1 when using dual magazine tubes. It also has a pistol grip and a length of pull (LOP) of just 13 inches. 

Kel-Tec is not the most recognizable manufacturer. The company mostly produces low-budget pistols. However, the KSG is a step up for the company and a reliable option for home defense. However, it is also one of the more costly choices. 

Check out the Kel-Tec KSG Shotgun video review from The Gunmeister for a closer look at the shotgun in action. 


  • Has a large capacity of 14+1 rounds
  • The compact design measures just 26.1 inches
  • Includes a pistol grip a short length of pull


  • Relatively expensive shotgun

4. Best Budget Shotgun – Mossberg Maverick 88 

Mossberg Maverick 88 Security Pump-Action Shotgun

If you’re looking for a good home defense shotgun on a budget, the Mossberg Maverick 88 fits the bill.

The Maverick 88 is another pump-action shotgun from Mossberg. It is also one of the most affordable shotguns available. 

The Mossberg Maverick 88 uses 12-gauge rounds and has a capacity of 7 rounds plus one in the chamber. It is also available with a pistol grip or a standard stock. With the standard stock, the gun measures 41 inches long.

The length of pull is 14.5-inches, which may be a little long for some users. However, if you have larger hands or longer arms, you may find it more comfortable compared to some of the other options.

The safety on the Maverick 88 is in front of the trigger instead of on top of the receiver. If you choose to use a standard stock instead of a pistol grip, the placement of the safety may be a little awkward.

As you can see from this Maverick 88 review from TFB TV on YouTube, the Maverick 88 is a surprisingly dependable shotgun for its price. You can also accessorize it as necessary to meet your needs, such as adding a scope or different sights.


  • One of the most affordable shotguns from a reliable manufacturer
  • Available with a pistol grip or a standard stock
  • Compatible with parts and accessories designed for the Mossberg 500


  • The safety is in front of the trigger 


Home Defense Shotgun Buyer’s Guide

Some of the main factors to consider when shopping for a shotgun for self-defense include:

  • Pump action vs. semi-automatic action
  • The gauge of the shotgun barrel
  • Pistol grip vs. standard stock
  • Length of pull and overall size

The capacity, sights, and aesthetics are less vital when comparing shotguns. Most options have a capacity of five or six rounds, which is all you need for home defense with a shotgun.

Most shotguns also come equipped with standard iron sights and support scopes and optics using Picatinny rails or Weaver rails.

Below is a closer look at the rest of the considerations…

Pump Action vs. Semi-Automatic

Shotguns use different types of action to eject and load rounds. The two most common options are pump-action and semi-automatic. Pump-action shotguns use a manual pump to eject and reload. 

The pump-action design is a common choice due to its reliability. It requires fewer parts compared to a semi-automatic design and is less susceptible to jamming and malfunctions.


Semi-automatic shotguns include more parts, resulting in higher costs. However, the top semi-auto shotguns are often as reliable as cheaper pump-action models. 

The best semi-automatic shotguns use gas to cycle the action. The gas-operated action ejects the used shell and loads the next one without requiring you to manually pump the gun. You get greater firing speed and less recoil.

For a more nuanced comparison of pump versus semi-automatic shotguns, watch the following discussion and demonstration video. It clearly explains the pros and cons of both choices.

The Gauge of the Shotgun Barrel

The gauge of the shotgun barrel determines the size of the shots that it uses. The gauge measures the inside diameter of the barrel and typically ranges from 10-gauge to 28-gauge.

A smaller gauge has a larger diameter, which means that it uses larger shots. For example, a 12-gauge shotgun uses larger shots compared to a 20-gauge shotgun. 

The 12-gauge shot is the most common recommendation for home defense. However, a 20-gauge shotgun still offers enough power to stop an intruder in his tracks. It also offers less recoil. 

Yet, the top recommendations are mostly 12-gauge shotguns. A 12-gauge shot offers a wider spread at longer distances and the ammo is often cheaper.

Pistol Grip vs. Standard Stock

Shotguns traditionally feature a straight grip with a long shoulder stock. The traditional shotgun stock absorbs more recoil and offers easier access to the underside of the gun. You may find that the traditional design feels more comfortable when firing a 10-gauge or 12-gauge shotgun.

The pistol grip is often recommended for beginners, as you can handle the shotgun with one hand. It also feels more like holding a tactical rifle, which may appeal to those that are used to firing rifles. 

Length of Pull and Overall Size

The length of pull (LOP) is the distance from the butt of the gunstock to the trigger. The typical LOP on a shotgun is 13 to 15 inches. The standard length is 13.5 inches. 

The LOP should match your size. If you have longer arms, you may feel more comfortable with a longer LOP. A shorter length requires you to bring your shoulders up in an awkward position. 


When it comes to choosing the best home defense shotguns, the Mossberg 590A1 is the clear winner. It is relatively affordable and incredibly reliable. It has a pistol grip and a pump-action design, which are two features that are often recommended for those that have never owned shotguns before.

home defense shotgun home image

In the unfortunate scenario where you have to defend your home, hopefully this article has provided you with detailed and helpful information to guide you in your selection of a home defense shotgun.

The Benelli M2 is a top option for those that want a semi-automatic shotgun. However, it is also one of the most expensive choices.

The Maverick 88 is the best budget choice. It costs a fraction of the other shotguns, but still offers dependable performance. The Kel-Tec KSG is great for those that want something more compact, as it only measures about 26 inches in length.

Click on one of the links to check the current prices on the best home defense shotguns.